I recently went to the range and hit some chips and pitch shots on 3 types of balls and 3 different wedges. I have been working on my chipping and pitching technique a lot to increase spin when I am close in. The balls I used were Titleist Pro V1x's (what I play), Titleist NXT Tour (non S), and Callaway HX Diablo. The Wedges were the Sand Wedge that came with my callaway (CW) x18's (used), a cleveland (CV) 588 forged 56 (used), and a Brand New Cleveland (CV) 588 RTX CB 56. Here is what I found
For the CW SW, all the balls pretty much looked and acted the same but with the pro v1x's having the best feeling. This is not a purpose made wedge and I know from lots of rounds before using a dedicated wedge that this is what I expect.
Both CV wedges performed much better with chips and pitches. All three balls checked up nicely with the better wedges with some roll out. I didn't notice any difference with my chips. My pitching is where the difference started to show between the golf ball. The PROV's checked up just a bit more and I had to hit them a little farther to get them to the same place. They also feel nicer when hit. It wasn't a huge difference but I did notice it.
IMHO unless you are using very cheap long distance, low spin balls most won't be able to tell much of a difference. From the fairway and on 150 I hardly notice any at all though that is just an observation from the past. I think a lot has to do with technique and using a wedge that isn't an el cheapo.
disclaimer* I am by no means even close to pro level and not even a scratch golfer. This is just my opinion and some observations I had. I am an average golfer with an average handicap. I practice my chipping a lot because my accuracy from distance still needs help and I miss the green more times than I would like.