"Probably the whole book of the rules of golf should be changed. If you try to figure it out, it should be common sense, yet common sense never seems to prevail. A USGA rules official said that it was much more difficult to pass the test to be a rules official than it was to pass the bar exam. There's no reason for that. The game should be simple. People should be able to understand the rules and the rules should be common sense." Jack Nicklaus
Jack was my idol in golf, but that doesn't mean that everything he says it right, or even logical. What the rules are is logical and reasonable when you make the effort to understand the underlying principles. Play the ball as it lies, and play the course as you find it. All of the on course playing procedures derive directly from those two statements.
The rules are not that tough to understand.
Play the ball as it lies
Don't ground your club in a hazard
You usually have three drop options, usually 2 club lengths, the point of entry between you and the hole, and the original spot (stroke and distance).
OB is stroke and distance
Hazards are all three options
Lost ball is stroke and distance
Its not that tough to understand, there area few weird cases with man made objects, loose impediments, but still its not tough to understand. I don't get why people complain about it. its a simple game.
Why are obstructions "weird" and what happened to abnormal ground? Ball unplayable? Ball at rest moved? And a half dozen other scenarios which are quite ignored in your synopsis. I agree that the playing procedures are pretty simple, but not quite as simple as you make them out to be.