1. The word REDSKIN on its face is and always has been a racial designation.
3. The word REDSKIN on its face refers to the real or imagined skin color of Native Americans.
4. Racial slurs often refer to real or imagined physical differences.
5. Dictionary usage labels signal that a word is not part of standard vocabulary.
6. Before 1966 no dictionary in this record included a usage label for the term
7. Beginning in 1966 and continuing to 1990, usage labels in dictionaries indicating
the term REDSKIN to be offensive, disparaging, contemptuous or not preferred,
first appear and then grow in number.
8. From 1983 on, all dictionary entries in the Barnhart report include a usage label
indicating the term is offensive, disparaging, contemptuous or not preferred.
10. The record shows that NCAI began advocating against use of respondent’s name
REDSKINS, in the 1960’s.
11. The advocacy organization American Indian Movement (AIM) was founded in
1968 and its effort to rid sports teams of Indian names, including respondent’s
name REDSKINS, has been ongoing for decades.
13. From the mid-1960’s to 1996, the word ‘redskin(s)’ has dropped out of written
and most spoken language as a reference to Native Americans.185
15. The usage labels appear and the use of the word redskin(s) disappears because
it is increasingly recognized that the term is offensive and disparaging during the
relevant time period as Native Americans raise awareness about the offensive
nature of the term redskin(s).
26. In 1996, 206 tribes were NCAI members.
On January 18-19, 1993 NCAI passed resolution 93-11 which reads in pertinent
[T]he term REDSKINS is not and has never been one of
honor or respect, but instead, it has always been and
continues to be a pejorative, derogatory, denigrating,
offensive, scandalous, contemptuous, disreputable,
disparaging and racist designation for Native American’s