I have a pretty steep angle of attack naturally which helps when deciding not to play in the fairway. That would be my first thought, to steepen the angle of attack. If hitting a punch shot, I have had success opening my stance and moving the ball back. I feel that opening my stance allows me to stay behind the ball when punching it out. I find that it is even more important to make sure that you stay behind the ball when coming out of medium to heavy rough. Otherwise I have a tendency to get too far ahead of the club face, really de-lofting it and snapping it shut in the grass causing major issues.
1. I wouldn't make much for adjustments.
2. I would club up in this situation. It is tough to say exactly without standing over the ball but it looks like I could get through it. Would hit a running punch (when applicable) if I am unable to get through the ball by just clubbing up.
3. I would definitely be looking to hit a low running punch shot if at all possible. Depending on what I can get on the ball, I would take that club. Probably nothing more than a 5 iron. If I don't feel that I can get a good punch on the ball, I would just grab a wedge, advance and hope for par.
Regardless, I always choose the club/shot that I have the most confidence in when coming out of medium to deep rough. If I think I can get to the green but am not entirely confident, I try to pick something else. I don't want to be hitting out of that stuff twice and I definitely don't want to penalize myself even further by introducing some sort of hazard.