I practice with long/short irons off a dry lake bed some times.
Ball in the middle part of my stance. (My sternum is my stance center) Some folks will have the ball back in their stance, and some forward. Just depends on where their swing's consistant low point is.
Hands some what a head of the club head at impact.
The trick is to hit the ball first, and not worry about a divot after impact. Who wants to take a divot off firm turf anyways?
It takes practice to hit this type of thin lie shot. Part of the learning process is knowing where the club head is in the swing. Once I learned this thin lie shot, that's all I ever hit anymore from the fairway. "Thin To Win" as the saying goes.
I'd probably start off practicing slow swing pitch shots, and go from there. Punch shots are good starting point too. As you start making better contact, increase your swing speed.
Seeing as how I started last month, my 2018 goals are to get through Q-School, win my first PGA Tour Event, and last, but the not least, qualify for the 2019 Masters.
Now when I'm awake lol ... I would just like to consistently hit the ball straight. And if I'm able to do that well these next few months, I'd love to enter a tournament, just to get the experience under my belt. Competing in Tournaments (particularly National ones), with success, is my overall goal.
I won't speak ill of your instructor, but learning about the things you're doing wrong isn't necessarily productive. Ideally, you should leave each lesson with one, no more than two, specific things you're going to work on when you practice. You might have drills or slow movements to practice, but you shouldn't be loaded up with multiple changes all at once. Video can be a really useful tool, both to demonstrate what you're trying to change, and to take on your own to verify that you're actually making the desired change. I suggest you talk with your instructor to make sure you understand what your "homework" is at the end of each lesson.
And yes, I'm still working on my game. I got my first instruction in more than 20 years through my own Swing thread here, and a little more when @iacas visited my club for a TST outing and Aimpoint classes. A year later, I'm still working on the changes recommended, and making slow progress. Golf is hard, but its a lot of fun.