I tore my labrum junior year of high school (fall '97), had surgery to repair it in June of '98. Full recovery is relative, but especially if it's your rear shoulder in golf you should be fine after a year if you put in hard work at rehab. My surgery felt like a failure cause I hurt it playing football but I was best in all my sports as a pitcher, and I never threw the ball harder than 75 mph again. Not for lack of trying though. Had the surgery and PT from the same two guys who treated Schilling for the same injury. Just wasn't in the cards for me (as I was warned was a possibility).
But, the good news is, pitching is probably the hardest thing to get back to. I played my senior year high school baseball season (at 1B!) starting March of '99, so 9 months after surgery. Wasn't super strong, but there were no pain or restrictions swinging the bat, just throwing the ball. If it's your rear golf shoulder, I'd guess you can at least get to play a normal round without pain or risk by the end of the summer.
Will reiterate the patience thing. After you get the sling off there will be what feels like a very long time with very restricted motion. I don't remember the exact time frame, but it was a pretty long time after the sling came off that I still couldn't even lift my arm straight out from my side past parallel to the ground. I'm a golf obsessive too, but don't jump the gun just to get an extra month or two of golf.
But you definitely need to push it. There will be parts of PT that are really uncomfortable or super tight and weird and even a tad painful. Stick with what your physical therapist prescribes, and make sure you ask questions about how far you can push it and go up near the limit. If you hold back too much or just don't put in the work you'll just stay weak longer and end up with a super restricted shoulder. But push too hard and you can reinjure it pretty easily within the first year. My memory is that basically that you want to work within the framework set up by your therapist and push it to the point where it feels weak and tight and uncomfortable, but never sharp pain.
Last thing, and obviously you'll get this from your PT, but when it gets to the point that it's not dangerous, working on flexibility is as important as strength. If you're overly cautious about moving your arm much because of reinjury and slack off on the stretching but do the strength work you'll end up super tight and it'll feel restricted. My right shoulder is still tighter than my left, and that's after hard work at rehab, 3 years of continuing stretching it during my years as a weak armed DIII outfielder, now 10 years of regular yoga, and my wife and I had a 3 year run obsessing with amateur partner acrobatics and hand balancing classes where I was intensively stretching my shoulders many times per week (this was many years after the surgery).